6. References


1. Author’s Note

[1] United Nations Treaty Collection. (2017, July 7). Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Retrieved from: https://treaties.un.org Link: https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/2017/07/20170707%2003-42%20PM/Ch_XXVI_9.pdf

2. Overview of Recent Events
2-2. Investigation of the Claims

[1] ABS-CBN. (2018, November 13). Jewish NGO blasts K-pop group for ‘denigrating’ the past. Retrieved from https://news.abs-cbn.com

[2] Big Hit Entertainment. (2018, November 13). Big Hit Entertainment’s Position on Issues Recently Raised Involving BTS. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com

[3] Brody, R. (2012, July 12). The inadequacy of Berlin’s Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe. The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com

[4] Chang, D. (2017, September 1). Seo Taiji, father of modern K-pop, celebrates 25 years. Yonhap News. Retrieved from https://www.en.yna.co.kr

[5] Du Cann, G. (2018, November 13) NAZI SHAME World’s biggest K-Pop boyband BTS spark outrage by wearing Nazi-outfits in Holocaust-themed photoshoot. The Sun. Retrieved from https://www.thesun.co.uk/

[6] Fox, T.S. (2015 September 15). Autumn/Winter 2015 Lookbook: SCARED. Hypebeast. Retrieved from https://www.hypebeast.com

[7] Hawley, C. and Tenberg, N. (2005 May 9). How long does one feel guilty?. Der Spiegel. Retrieved from https://www.spiegel.de

[8] Hay, M. (2015, February 12). Nazi Chic: The Asian fashion craze that just won’t die. Vice News. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com

[9] Herman, T. (2017, September 4). K-pop legend Seo Taiji holds 25th anniversary concert, passes torch to BTS. Billboard. Retrieved from https://www.billboard.com

[10] Hong, C. (2018, November 13). Stylist responds to questions about hat with Nazi symbol being used in BTS photoshoot. Soompi. Retrieved from https://www.soompi.com

[11] Lee, M. (2018, November 13). Jewish group angry over BTS ‘Nazi’ hats and flags. The Korea Times. Retrieved from https://www.koreatimes.co.kr

[12] Lew. K. (2018, November 9). Designer comments on BTS’s postponed Music Station appearance and meaning behind T-shirt. Soompi. Retrieved from https://www.soompi.com  

[13] MacIntyre, D. (2000, June 5). They dressed well. Time. Retrieved from https://www.time.com

[14] Malloy, D. (2017, November 24). Why does everyone keep making Nazi comparisons?. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com

[15] McCurry, J. (2018, November 12). BTS should apologize to Japan and Nazi victims, says rabbi. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com

[16] Mendez, B. (2017, August 1). Seo Taiji & Boys pioneered socially conscious K-pop for groups like BTS. Noisey. Retrieved from https://noisey.vice.com

[17] Mitchell, T. (2002). Global Noise: Rap and Hip Hop Outside the USA. Wesleyan University Press.

[18] Oltermann, P. (2017, January 19). Yolocaust Artist provokes debate over commemorating Germany’s past. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com

[19] Shin, Y. (2018, November 16). Big Hit personally apologizes to Atomic Bomb Victims Association in Korea. Soompi. Retrieved from https://www.soompi.com

[20] Simon Wiesenthal Center. (2018, November 11). Popular Korean Band Whose Japan Performance Was Cancelled For T-Shirt Mocking A-Bomb Victims, Once Posed With Nazi SS Death Head Symbols, Flew Nazi-Like Flags At Concert. Retrieved from https://www.wiesenthal.com  

[21] Simon Wiesenthal Center. (2017, November 8). American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery Has Expelled Prominent Japanese Surgeon For Praising Hitler, Denying Nazi Holocaust And Nanjing Massacre. Retrieved from http://www.wiesenthal.com


2-3-3. International Media Coverage

3-1. Historical Context
3-1-1. A Colonized Korea, Japanese Imperialism, and Post-War Relations

[1] Abe, S. (2015). Statement by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe [Transcript]. Retrieved from https://japan.kantei.go.jp/

[2] Amnesty International. (2005). Still Waiting After 60 Years: Justice For Survivors Of Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery System. Amnesty International. Retrieved from www.amnesty.org

[3] Baldwin, Jr., F. P. (1969). The March First Movement: Korean Challenge and Japanese Response. Columbia University. PhD dissertation.

[4] Choe, S. (2016, May 26). Korean survivors of atomic bombs renew fight for recognition and apology. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com

[5] Excerpts from the Treaty of Portsmouth. (1905, September 5). JAPAN and RUSSIA. Retrieved from http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/japan/portsmouth.pdf

[6] Haas, B. (2018, November 21). Anger in Japan as South Korea Dissolves ‘Comfort Women’ Foundation. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com

[7] Hwang, K. M. (2017). A History of Korea: an Episodic Narrative. Palgrave, Macmillan Education.

[8] Hall, M. (2013, August 6). By the Numbers: World War II’s atomic bombs. CNN. Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com

[9] Hwang, K. M. (2017). A History of Korea: an Episodic Narrative. Palgrave, Macmillan Education.

[10] Japan and South Korea Agree WW2 ‘Comfort Women’ Deal. (2015, Dec 28). BBC News. Retrieved from www.bbc.com/news/

[11] Joyce, C. (2007, March 3). Japanese PM denies wartime ‘comfort women’ were forced. The Telegraph. Retrieved from www.telegraph.co.uk

[12] Kim, T. (2018, November 21). South Korea shuts a “Comfort Women” foundation as it looks to reassess WWII sexual slavery. Time. Retrieved from: https://www.time.com

[13] Kratoska, P. H. (2005). Asian Labor in the Wartime Japanese Empire : Unknown Histories, Routledge.

[14] Lee, S. (2018, November 16). [Full statement] Position of the victims of atomic bombings regarding the apology visit of Big Hit, BTS’ agency. Newsrep. Retrieved from: www.newsrep.co.kr

[15] Liberation of Korea: Independence Movement and International Relations. (2018) National Museum of Korean Contemporary History. Retrieved from  http://www.much.go.kr/en/mainen.do

[16] Manela, E. (2017). The Wilsonian Moment : Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism. Oxford University Press.

[17] Mizoguchi, K. (1993). Japan Admits it Forced Women to Serve as Sex Slaves. Deseret News. Retrieved from https://www.deseretnews.com/

[18] Schirokauer, C. & Clark, D. (2004). Modern East Asia: A Brief History. Belmont, Thomson-Wadsworth.

[19] Tatsumi, Y. (2018, January 11). The Japan-South Korea “Comfort Women” Agreement survives (barely). The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://www.thediplomat.com

[20] Taylor, A. (2016, May 25). The forgotten story of tens of thousands of Koreans who died in Hiroshima. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com

[21] The Cyber University of Korea. (2016, March 27). Japanese colonial policy and its impact on Korea.” YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com

[22] The World and Japan Database. (22 June 1965). JAPAN and THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA. Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea. Retrieved from http://worldjpn.grips.ac.jp/documents/texts/docs/19650622.T1E.html

[23] United Nations Commission on Human Rights. (1996). Report on the mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea and Japan on the issue of military sexual slavery in wartime. Retrieved from http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/
[24] United Nations Treaty Collection. (1965, June 22). JAPAN and REPUBLIC OF KOREA. Agreement on the settlement of problems concerning property and claims and on economic co-operation (with Protocols, exchanges of notes and agreed minutes). Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org

[25] United States Strategic Bombing Survey Summary Report (Pacific War). (1946, July 1). Harry S. Truman Presidential Library. Retrieved from: https://www.trumanlibrary.org


3-1-2. Politics of Memory

[1] Dower, J. W. (1999). Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. W.W. Norton & CoPrint.

[2] Fury as ‘comfort women’ and ‘forced labour’ definitions are changed by Japan Times, amid concerns that it is bowing to rightwing pressure over country’s WWII history. (2018, December 1). South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com

[3] Gady, Franz-Stefan. (2015, August 15). Should the United States Be Blamed for Japan’s Historical Revisionism? In hindsight, exonerating Japan’s Emperor was a grave mistake. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com

[4] Haberstroh, J. (2003). In re: World War II Era Japanese Forced Labor Litigation and Obstacles to International Human Rights Claim in U.S. Courts. Asian Law Journal. Vol. 10. No. 253. Retrieved from https://heinonline.org

[5] McCurry, Justin. (2018, November 30). ‘Comfort women’: anger as Japan paper alters description of WWII terms. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com

[6] Oi, M. (2013, March 14). What Japanese history lessons leave out. BBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com

[7] Palmer, D. (2015, August 5). Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Living under the Shadow of the Bomb. The Sunday Morning Herald. Retrieved from www.smh.com.au

[8] Romo, Vanessa. (2018, November 30). ‘Japan Times’ Newspaper Redefines ‘Comfort Women’ and ‘Forced Labor.’ The National Public Radio. Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org

[9] Shin, G. (2015, August 15). Colonialism, Invasian, and Atomic Bombs: Asia’s Divergent Histories. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com

[10] Soh, C. S. (2009). The comfort women: Sexual violence and postcolonial memory in Korea and Japan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.[11] South Korea’s top court orders Mitsubishi Heavy to pay compensation for wartime labor. (2018, November 29). Japan Times. Retrieved from https://www.japantimes.co.jp


3-2-1. Why BTS

[1] Atkins, E. T. (2010). Primitive selves: Koreana in the Japanese colonial gaze, 1910-1945 (Vol. 5). Univ of California Press.

[2] Kim, J. (2012, August 22). Super Junior’s Siwon “Dokdo Is Our Land” tweet infuriates Japanese fans. Soompi. Retrieved from: https://www.soompi.com

[3] Lee, C. (2012, February 22). Preview of Kim Tae-hee’s Japanese commercial axed. The Korea Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.koreaherald.com

[4] Michel, P. St. (2011, September 13).  How Korean Pop Conquered Japan. The Atlantic. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com

[5] Min, K. (2018, November 13). Why target BTS? Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved from: http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com

[6] Park, S. (2013, April 3). Celebrities take risk to promote Dokdo. The Korea Times. Retrieved from: http://www.koreatimes.co.kr

[7] Shim, D. (2008). The growth of Korean cultural industries and the Korean wave. East Asian pop culture: Analysing the Korean wave, 1, 15-32.

[8] Van Dyke, J. M. (2007). Legal issues related to sovereignty over Dokdo and its maritime boundary. Ocean Development & International Law, 38(1-2), 157-224. [9] Yoon, J. (2011, August 9). Japan’s right-wing groups hold rallies vs. Korean pop culture. The Dong-A Ilbo. Retrieved from: https://www.english.donga.com

[9] Yoon, J. (2011, August 9). Japan’s right-wing groups hold rallies vs. Korean pop culture. The Dong-A Ilbo. Retrieved from: https://www.english.donga.com


3-2-2. Why Now

[1] Cho, J. (2018, November 12). Abe did not send his congratulatory message to a frenship event between Korea and Japan. Would it be because of the court decision on forced labor?. Yonhap News. Retrieved from: https://www.yna.co.kr

[2] Gibson, J. (2018, November 15). K-Pop Group BTS Caught in Latest Tensions Between South Korea and Japan. The Diplomat. Retrieved from: https://thediplomat.com

[3] Kim, S. (2018, October 30). Supreme Court orders Japanese firm to provide compensation for wartime forced labor. Yonhap News. Retrieved from: https://en.yna.co.kr

[4] Lee, K. (2018, November 12). The 27th Korea-Japan festival in Osaka, there was no congratulatory message from Abe. Seoul Shinmun. Retrieved from http://www.seoul.co.kr

[5] Lee, S., & Lee, H. E. (2016). The Making of International Law in Korea: from Colony to Asian Power. Brill.

[6] Memory Reconciliation in the Asia-Pacific, Sigur Center for Asian Studies, George Washington University. Korean victims of the Asia-Pacific War. (including Kim Hak-soon) Retrieved from https://memoryreconciliation.org.

[7] Tokyo Sports (2018, November 1). A spark from the forced labor problem! From NHK’s Kōhaku Uta Gassen to Hallyu expulsion… TWICE and BTS are out?. Retrieved from: https://www.tokyo-sports.co.jp[8] United Nations Treaty Collection. (1966, December 15). JAPAN and REPUBLIC OF KOREA. Agreement on the settlement of problems concerning property and claims and on economic co-operation (with Protocols, exchanges of notes and agreed minutes). Retrieved from: https://treaties.un.org

[8] United Nations Treaty Collection. (1966, December 15). JAPAN and REPUBLIC OF KOREA. Agreement on the settlement of problems concerning property and claims and on economic co-operation (with Protocols, exchanges of notes and agreed minutes). Retrieved from: https://treaties.un.org


4. Fandom Responses

[1] Benjamin, J. (2018, November 21). 2016 BTS Song Hits No. 1 on World Digital Song Sales Chart After Fan-Led Initiative. Billboard. Retrieved from https://www.billboard.com

[2] Channel A News (Korea). (2018, November 12). “Autumn, don’t leave”… BTS’ RM who visited ‘Yun Dong-ju’. Kim Jin’s Fast Ball Show. Youtube. Retrieved freom: https://www.youtube.com

[3] Kwak (2018, September 16). BTS cancels project with rightist producer. The Korea Times. Retrieved from: www.koreatimes.co.kr

[4] Lee, S. (2018, November 16). [Full statement] Position of the victims of atomic bombings regarding the apology visit of Big Hit, BTS’ agency. Newsrep. Retrieved from: www.newsrep.co.kr

[5] Palmer, D. (2015, August 5). Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Living under the Shadow of the Bomb. The Sunday Morning Herald. Retrieved from www.smh.com.au

[6] Sang, E. (2018, October 19). BTS’ Jimin Draws Flack Over Shirt That ‘Commemorates’ At‌omi‌c Bo‌mb‌in‌‌g of Hi‌ro‌sh‌im‌a. NEXTSHARK. Retrived from https://nextshark.com/[7] yckim124 (2018, November 9). “The controversial shirt Jimin wore gets sold out” Allkpop. Retrieved from: https://www.allkpop.com


J-ARMYs’ Responses and Frustration

[1] Bomb threat sent to Nagoya BTS fan due to her tweets. (2018, November 15). Mainichi Shinbun. Retrieved from https://mainichi.jp/articles/20181116/k00/00m/040/077000c.

[2] BTS Matome. (2018, October 8). 【BTS】What is #wedemandbtshaltactivitiesinjapan?. Retrieved from https://bts-matome.com/archives/9560.

[3] BTS performance on Music Station cancelled and the atomic bomb t-shirt that caused a stir.(2018, November 9).  Asahi Shinbun Digital. Retrieved from https://www.asahi.com/ articles/ASLC87VTGLC8UCFI00B.html.

[4] Daily News Online. (2018, October 22). What is the background behind vehement condemnation toward the “atomic bomb t-shirt” of BTS, who are speculated to have been accepted to perform at NHK Kouhaku?. Nifty News. Retrieved from https://news.nifty.com/article/entame/showbizd/12216-1545776/.

[5] Editorial Department of Career Connection. (2018, November 9). Director Takasu responds to violence and death threats from BTS fans by remaking that he will ‘report those who do not apologize by today’. He has reported twitter users in the past as well. Career Connection News. Retrieved from https://news.careerconnection.jp/?p=62200.

[6] Female college students working at TSUTAYA stirs controversy following her threatening tweet to “release personal information” of a customer. (2018, November 14). Breaking News Japan.  Retrieved from https://breaking-news.jp/2018/11/14/045160.

[7] Herman, T. (2018, November 13). Big Hit has since released an English statement on the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s allegations aimed at the group. Billboard. Retrieved from: https://www.billboard.com/

[8] Ito, R. (2018, November 4). Those that post self-centric rhetoric. Tada no kaze. Retrieved from http://caughtacold.hatenablog.com/entry/2018/11/14/074508.

[9] Japan Times Now DIGITAL. (2018, November 17). The abusive language surrounding BTS and incurable crazed Japanese and Korean fans. Nifty News. Retrieved from https://news.nifty.com/article/entame/showbizd/12136-126203/.

[10] Kubota, M. (2018, November 13). Why the Korean boom is left unaffected despite BTS’s t-shirt controversy. ITmedia. Retrieved from www.itmedia.co.jp/business/articles/1811/13/news049.html.

[11] Kyarikone News. (2018, November 14).【BTS’s controversy】“They aren’t anti-Japan. But I wondered why they weren’t apologizing.” The real look at honest truth of a female fan in her 20’s. Livedoor News. Retrieved from http://news.livedoor.com/article/detail/15595109/.

[12] Oi, M. (2013, March 14). What Japanese history lessons leave out.” BBC News. Retrieved from:  https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21226068.

[13] Sakurai, M. (2018, November 5). TV Asahi, Adding Fuel to the Angry Flame of Japanese People]. Doronpa no hitorigoto. Retrieved from  https://ameblo.jp/doronpa01/entry-12416625243.html.

[14] Shin, M. (2018, November 14). What are the reactions of Japanese fans toward BTS’s scandal? We visited Tokyo Dome to ask around!!. Yahoo! Japan News. Retrieved from https://news.yahoo.co.jp/byline/shinmukoeng/ 20181114-00104056/.

[15] Sneider, Daniel. (2012, May 29). Divided Memories: History Textbooks and the Wars in Asia. Nippon.com. Retrieved from https://www.nippon.com/en/in-depth/a00703/.

[16] Sneider, Daniel. (2013, May 22). Textbooks and Patriotic Education: Wartime Memory Formation in China and Japan.” Asia-Pacific Review, Volume 20, No. 1, 35-54. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13439006.2013.793065.

[17]  What are the international reactions of the BTS t-shirt issue? How Japan and Korea are seen. (2018, November 12). Yukashiki Sekai. Retrieved from http://yukashikisekai.com/?p=70744.


5. Closing Remarks

[1] Dicon (2018). Dicon Vol.2: BTS Behind The Scene. Dicon.

[2] Frankenberg, E. (2018, September 12). BTS Grammy Museum Q&A: 5 Things We Learned. Billboard. Retrieved from https://www.billboard.com

[3] Hong, S. (2018, November 14). BTS’ agency apologizes to the victim of atomic bombings; anti-Korean atmosphere calms down. MBC News. Retrieved from: http://imnews.imbc.com

[4] Kim, J. (2018, August 25). BTS’ RM “‘Ulsoo, Jotta’ in ‘IDOL,’ was put as a joke but chosen because it was stuck in my head.” Kookje News. Retrieved from www.kookje.co.kr

[5] Lee, S. (2018, November 16). [Full statement] Position of the victims of atomic bombings regarding the apology visit of Big Hit, BTS’ agency. Newsrep. Retrieved from: www.newsrep.co.kr

[6] Park, G. (2018, November 2). [Hi #Music] ‘From Seo Taiji to BTS’: How music changes the world. Hankook Ilbo. Retrieved from http://www.naver.com

[7] Washington Post (2018, September 24). The full speech that RM of BTS gave at the United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com

7-1. Big Hit’s Statement

[1] Big Hit Entertainment. (2018, November 13). Big Hit Entertainment’s Position on Issues Recently Raised Involving BTS. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com

[2] Herman, T. (2018, November 13). Big Hit has since released an English statement on the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s allegations aimed at the group. Billboard. Retrieved from: https://www.billboard.com/

[3] Hong, S. (2018, November 14). BTS’ agency apologizes to the victim of atomic bombings; anti-Korean atmosphere calms down. MBC News. Retrieved from: http://imnews.imbc.com

[4] Kim, S. (2018, November 16). BTS’ agency delivers an official apology regarding the T-shirt controversy by visiting the victims of atomic bombings. Yonhap News. Retrieved from: https://www.yna.co.kr

[5] Simon Wisenthal Center. (2018, November 11). Popular Korean Band Whose Japan Performance Was Cancelled For T-Shirt Mocking A-Bomb Victims, Once Posed With Nazi SS Death Head Symbols, Flew Nazi-Like Flags At Concert. Retrieved from https://www.wiesenthal.com[6] Simon Wisenthal Center. (2018, November 13). Wiesenthal Center Welcomes K-Pop Group’s Apology For Incidents Offensive To Jewish And Japanese Victims Of WWII. Retrieved from https://www.wiesenthal.com

[6] Simon Wisenthal Center. (2018, November 13). Wiesenthal Center Welcomes K-Pop Group’s Apology For Incidents Offensive To Jewish And Japanese Victims Of WWII. Retrieved from https://www.wiesenthal.com